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The GEAR against IPV The GEAR against IPV approach (Gender Equality Awareness Raising against Intimate Partner Violence)

on 20 March 2015

gearThe GEAR against IPV

The GEAR against IPV approach (Gender Equality Awareness Raising against Intimate Partner Violence) is a coordinated action of primary and secondary prevention of Intimate Partner Violence in adolescents’ relationships through interventions in the school or in other settings, that are guided by specially designed educational material and are aimed at secondary school students’ awareness raising and empowerment by specially trained teachers.

The main aim is to promote the development of healthy and equal relationships between the sexes and the development of zero tolerance towards violence by raising teens’ awareness on:

a) the characteristics of healthy and unhealthy relationships

b) the influence that gender stereotypical attitudes and socially imposed gender roles have on their relationships

c) how power inequality between the sexes is related to psychological, physical and/or sexual abuse against women/girls and

d)  how adolescents can contribute to the prevention of all forms of gender-based violence.

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Abrudean AlexandraThe GEAR against IPV The GEAR against IPV approach (Gender Equality Awareness Raising against Intimate Partner Violence)

B-SIDE:Barrier to Stop the In-door Domino Effect for children who witness domestic violence, 2014

on 13 March 2015

The project B-side, a barrier to stop the indoor domino effect for children who witness domestic violence (CWDV): experiences and guidelines sought the implementation of specific interventions for the recovery of the relationship between women victims of domestic violence and their children witnesses of this violence.

Project homepage: http://www.cwdv-abarriertostopindoordominoeffect.eu/en/

The phenomenon of Children Witnessing Domestic Violence is classified among the forms of childhood abuse, and is part of the Istanbul Convention – which came into force in August 2014 and was signed by the Romanian government. However, its extent and effect is still highly underestimated, both from the point of view of social recognition, but also considering the need for an adequate response in terms of protection and care of children and their mothers, through appropriate laws and specific policies.

Objectives , comparing the experiences of different countries at European level, in order to:

– set up Recovery Programmes aimed at helping both mother and child to overcome the traumatic experience they have suffered, to rebuild their self-confidence as individuals and support the mother – child relationship as a family, in order for them to be able to face the reconstruction of their future in serenity;

– develop a single method to evaluate and monitor the impact on the beneficiaries involved in the different countries;

–  promote greater knowledge and awareness of the issue in public opinion and propose new intervention methods for public workers and those in the private social sector.

The project  gave the opportunity  to identify both intervention and evaluation methods which can be repeated in other European countries independently of the specific conditions existing in the different context. Each partner, through a blog-forum for workers in this sector (such as employees in the Juvenile Tribunals, social services, paediatricians, school teachers, anti-violence workers) and a similar one also for the wider public, can interact and share documents and considerations, allowing others to better understand the phenomenon and the problems associated with domestic violence against women and children, as well as possible tools which can be used to stop the transmission of the violence between generations.

Here you find the final pubblication Experiences-and-guidelines_a-barrier-to-stop-indoor-domino-effect-children-witness-domestic-violence where you can find the information and the activites implemented by the partners in all countries involved.

The B-SIDE Project was set up by the Pangea Foundation in partnership with other Italian and European associations: the Lilith Women’s Centre in Latina (Italy), the Association of Assistance for Sexually Abused and Gender Violence Victims A.D.A.V.A.S of Salamanca (Spain) of Salamanca (Spain), the Women’s Rights Association “NANE” in Budapest (Hungary); along with the participation as associate partner of the Association for Freedom and Equality of Sexes “A.L.E.G.” of Sibiu (Romania).

Project funded by the European Commission as part of the DAPHNE III Programme.

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Abrudean AlexandraB-SIDE:Barrier to Stop the In-door Domino Effect for children who witness domestic violence, 2014

My Body My Own

on 31 August 2014

 

PROJECT “My Body My Own –
Sexual Violence among Youth:
Raising Awareness and Counseling Center”

Survey

Objective

to increase the access of youth in risk situations to information services regarding sexual violence and to provide integrated specialized assistance to victims of sexual violence through information and awareness activities for youth and for specialists (doctors, social workers, school counselors, police officers, etc.) in Sibiu and Mureș counties, but also through the establishment of a pilot assistance center in Sibiu for the sexual violence victims.

Implementation period

15 April 2014 – 14 October 2015

Funding

SEE 2009-2014 grants, within the NGO Fund for Romania

Partners

Stigamot (Iceland), East European Institute for Reproductive Health (Târgu Mureş), Sibiu County School Inspectorate, Mureş County School Inspectorate, Sibiu General Direction of Social Assistance and Child Protection, Ema Association (Braşov).

[wpspoiler name=”Why is this project necessary?”]

  1. A serious problem silenced
  • In Romania, 7% of women say they have suffered some form of sexual violence after the age of 15. Reported to the country’s female population, this means over 700.000 women (source: Fundamental Rights Agency)
  • Sexual violence also affects boys, especially minors or particularly vulnerable youth
  • According to UN Women (Fact-sheet on Sexual Violence, 2010), 50% of sexual aggressions happen before the age of 16, thus the youth are a significant risk group.
  • Sexual violence is one of the most destructive form of gender violence. In Romania, it is the least recognized form and the least reported as abuse, because of social rules (which cause the victim to be shamed and blamed, rather than the aggressor), because of double victimization (when a victim files a complaint, he/she is submitted to new traumatizing situations during the legal procedures) and because of lack of specialized services where victims could benefit from support and counseling.
  1. Lack of support services, in spite of legal obligations
  • Beginning with 2015, Romania has the duty to implement Directive 2012/29/EU on crime victims, which distinctively refers to gender violence, and the Romanian police and courts will have to refer the victims of crimes “with high risk of secondary victimization”, like sexual violence is, to specialized assistance services.
  • In Romania, there are no rape crisis centers or counseling centers specialized on sexual violence. These services are just starting to develop, even though the Council of Europe standards require one place in a rape crisis center for every 20.000 inhabitants, with a good local distribution.
  1. The need to inform specialists and people who may come into contact with victims
  • A 2013 World Health Organization study regarding sexual violence recommends that the medical system is involved and empowered to identify sexual violence and refer victims to support services. Thus, the collaboration between police officer/prosecutor, social assistant/psychologist and medical staff is essential in integrated intervention. What is more, priests in all local communities can have an important role in avoiding the victim to blame and to refer him/her to support services.

[/wpspoiler][wpspoiler name=”Activities”]

Information and awareness campaign

  • Duration: 12 months
  • 10 localities in Sibiu and Mureş
  • Target groups: young people (14-29 years old), specialists who can advise the victim (social workers, psychologists, doctors, police officers etc.)

For YOUTH – educational sessions based on non-formal education methods (duration 90 minutes), during which we will also use:

      • educational films – the meaning of consent, how to express and respect consent, risk behavior vs. positive behavior
      • Sexual Violence handbook: recognize manifestations, avoid, offer support

For SPECIALISTS – local meetings focused on avoiding secondary victimization, understanding causes and effects, during which we will also use:

      • information and awareness packagesthe meaning of consent, how to express and respect consent, risk behavior vs. positive behavior

Pilot assistance center for victims of sexual violence

    • Online information and counseling. Access here
    • Psychological counseling
    • Legal assistance
    • Paying for medical certificates when necessary

[/wpspoiler][wpspoiler name=”Consequences of sexual violence”]

Information from Stigamot (Iceland) casuistry in the last 20 years show that the victims of sexual violence most often choose to silence the traumatizing events they went through. Thus, more than 80% of victims do not report the abuse they went through and do not discuss what happened to them with other people. The main reasons for which the victim does not speak about their violence experience:

  • I was ashamed” 85%
  • I thought it was my fault” 75%
  • I did not dare describe what happened to me” 35%

The emotional, behavioral and cognitive consequences what the victims of sexual violence feel are multiple and extremely serious. The figure below shows the most frequent such consequences:

consequences

It should be noted that, besides anxiety, sadness and low self-esteem, shame and guilt are in the top of this sad statistics of consequences felt by the victims of sexual violence.

[/wpspoiler]

Result and deliverable

My Body My Own – At home

Video produced under the project My Body My Own – Sexual Violence among Youth: Raising Awareness and Counseling Center, project financed with SEE 2009-2014 grants, within the NGO Fund for Romania.

My Body My Own – 5 o’clock

Video produced under the project My Body My Own – Sexual Violence among Youth: Raising Awareness and Counseling Center, project financed with SEE 2009-2014 grants, within the NGO Fund for Romania.

My Body My Own – At Sunset

Video produced under the project My Body My Own – Sexual Violence among Youth: Raising Awareness and Counseling Center, project financed with SEE 2009-2014 grants, within the NGO Fund for Romania.

Educational Handbook: Sexual Violence: recognise, prevent, discourage, help

Project Outcomes in Brief: In the timeframe  1 Nov. 2014- 14 Nov. 2015, the Caravan „My Body My Own” reached 902 students from 11 different urban and rural communities at risk of violence from Sibiu, Mureș, Brașov and Vrancea counties, during 17 educational sessions for prevention of sexual violence which included screening of the educational film My Body My Own. In each local community the caravan organized meetings for local professionals in order to raise awareness on ways to pro-actively identify cases of sexual violence, ensure a gender-sensitive approach, prevent secondary victimisation and empshasized the importance of ensuring the access of survivors to specialised support services. The pilot counseling center for survivors of sexual violence was used by 115 beneficiaries, of which over 90% women and girls. Of them, 65 chose the option of online counseling services, 42 requested information over the phone. All the persons who contactacted us received information and counseling in order to recognize if they are in an abusive situation, understand the specific forms, causes and effects of sexual violence, learn about victims’rights and how to access these rights. We were able to help 5 survivors with legal aid (of which 3 with free legal representation in court), and 3 with re-imbursement of the costs of forensic certificates as proofs in court. 3 survivors accessed long term psychological counseling. We also helped 5 women with reimbursement of costs with medical services not covered by medical ensurance. Project Outcomes in Brief

The contents of this website section do not necessarily represent the official position of the SEE 2009-2014 grants. The responsibility for the correctness and coherence of the information presented lies wholly with the website initiator. For official information regarding the SEE and Norwegian grants, access www.eeagrants.org
Project financed through the SEE 2009-2014 grants, in the NGO Fund for Romania.

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Abrudean AlexandraMy Body My Own

Gender Equality Festival 2014

on 29 August 2014

Equality starts with you!

Why a Gender Equality Festival?
Sibiu is known as a city of festivals. While most festivals have a cultural or commercial purpose, the Gender Equality Festival is the only educational festival, promoting social change. The main goal is to encourage new attitudes and behaviours, especially among young people; the activities are based on non-formal education methods and entrance to the events is free.

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Abrudean AlexandraGender Equality Festival 2014

Breaking the Silence on Sexual Violence

on 24 August 2014

Why this project: The project “Breaking the Silence on Sexual Violence” emerged from the need to have a more structured space to discuss sexual violence and ways to combat it among 9 NGOs promoting gender equality and advocating for ending violence against women. The idea behind of the project is to break through the taboos surrounding sexual violence in order to encourage victims to seek adequate help and report the crimes.

 A recent study of the Fundamental Rights Agency of the EU “ Violence against women: every day and in every place” shows that 6% of Romanian women have been at some point in their lives victims of sexual aggression.  Unfortunately only a small number of victims receive specialized assistance or report the crime. The difference between what authorities record and what the everyday experience of women when aggression and harassment is a routine event remains covered in silences, prejudice, shame and fear.  It is out of this need that this project steams from and which it aims to address.

Local Partners: Asociația Transcena, Institutul Est European pentru Sănătatea Reproducerii, Asociația Front, Centrul Parteneriat pentru Egalitate, Asociația E-Romnja, Societatea de Analize Feministe AnA, Centrul Filia, Asociația Artemis, Asociația A.L.E.G; collaborator: Sensiblu Foundation

International Partner: Stigamot Iceland

Breaking the Silence on Sexual Violence benefits from the experience of a foreign partner whose collaboration we deem key for the development of the project. The Iceland partner organization Stigamot has been offering specialized counseling for victims of sexual violence and it has been representing victim’s interests for the past 23 years in Reykjavik. Stigamot will take part in two thematic meetings to share its experience concerning services for victims and advocacy campaigns.

 Funding SEE 2009-2014 grants, in the NGO Fund Romania. The total value of the project is 43,409 Euros

Duration: 15th of May 2014 – 15th of May 2015.

 Main objectives:

  • Strenghtening the capacities of the NGO network to integrate a gender perspective on sexual violance in the public agenda
  • Enhancing dialogue with other partners and agreeing common priorities during 7 thematic meetings; the agreeded priorities will be translated in 10 advocacy instruments ( 5 position papers and 5 factsheets); enhancing knowledge of sexual violence through the development of an online resource center.
  • Consolidating advocacy capacities of the network by promoting a common message through 5 local events and a public seminar at national level on sexual violence and priorities.
  • Extending the network with 5 additional organizations which work with beneficieries at risk of sexual victimization.

Activitities:

  • A series of 7 thematic meetings with network members ( July 2014 – April 2015); the last meeting to be followed by a public seminar.
  • An online resource center – to include information on services, examples of good practice, current studies and research as well as the network’s own advocacy documents. The target audience of the online resource center are professionals working with victims or with persons at risk of sexual victimization, decision-makers, mass-media, relevant universities.
  • A series of 5 public local events in Iasi, Târgu-Mureș, Sibiu, Cluj and Bucharest  promoting a common message and a call to action developed by the network.

 Calendar for thematic meetings:

 Meeting 1.   Sexual Violence from a gender perspective: approaches and risk groups- Date:  24 July 2014, Bucharest

 Meeting 2. Media Representations of Sexual Violence: issues and good practices- Date: 22nd August,  Bucharest

 Meeting 3. Good Practices in Providing Services for Victims-  Date: 17-18 September, Sibiu

 Meeting 4. Sexual Violence Against Adults, Sexual Violence Against Minors- Date: 17th of October, Bucharest

Meeting 5.  Agreeing Priorities and a Common Actions, Date: 10th of November, Bucharest

Meeting 6. Sexual Harassment and Sexual Violence within Intimate Relationships,  Date:  15th of December, Bucharest

Meeting  7. Drafting a Call to Action on Sexual Violence

The contents of this website section do not necessarily represent the official position of the SEE 2009-2014 grants. The responsibility for the correctness and coherence of the information presented lies wholly with the website initiator.For official information regarding the SEE and Norwegian grants, access www.eeagrants.org. Project financed through the SEE 2009-2014 grants, in the NGO Fund for Romania.

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Abrudean AlexandraBreaking the Silence on Sexual Violence

Breaking the Silence on Sexual Violence

on 7 August 2014

Breaking the Silence on Sexual Violence: strengthening NGO capacity to integrate sexual violence on the public agenda

Why this project:

Imagini pentru Breaking the sexual violence ACTEDOThe project “Breaking the Silence on Sexual Violence” emerged from the need to have a more structured space to discuss sexual violence and ways to combat it among 9 NGOs promoting gender equality and advocating for ending violence against women. The idea behind of the project is to break through the taboos surrounding sexual violence in order to encourage victims to seek adequate help and report the crimes.

A recent study of the Fundamental Rights Agency of the EU “ Violence against women: every day and in every place” shows that 6% of Romanian women have been at some point in their lives victims of sexual aggression.  Unfortunately only a small number of victims receive specialized assistance or report the crime. The difference between what authorities record and what the everyday experience of women when aggression and harassment is a routine event remains covered in silences, prejudice, shame and fear.  It is out of this need that this project steams from and which it aims to address.

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Abrudean AlexandraBreaking the Silence on Sexual Violence

Breaking the Silence about Sexual Violence, 6% of Romanian women have been sexually aggressed at some point in their life

on 28 July 2014

The European Union Agency for Fundamental Rights (FRA) study, “Violence against Women: every day and everywhere” shows that 6% of Romanian women have been sexually aggressed at some point in their life. The FRA survey’s results are more worrying as the number of cases of sexual aggressions and rapes reported to the authorities is under 1500 cases per year. The difference between what gets into the police statistics and women’s daily life, where harassing and sexual aggression are almost daily occurrences, is surrounded by silence and covered by taboos, prejudices and fear.

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Abrudean AlexandraBreaking the Silence about Sexual Violence, 6% of Romanian women have been sexually aggressed at some point in their life

Sustainable development and Gender Equality

on 4 July 2014

Between 30th and 9th of July, A.L.E.G. through Irina Costache participates at the working meetings of High Level Political Forum on imagine HLPFSustainable Development, an inter-governmental mechanism that will insure the monitoring and reporting on the implementation of development objectives for 2015-2030. The main priority for these discussions will be to ensure the meaningful participation of women and women’s rights organizations in the aftermath of 2015. At the end of the forum we hope to have had established a mechanism by which women’s rights organizations will be able to participate in program and policy evaluation regarding sustainable development.

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Abrudean AlexandraSustainable development and Gender Equality

Violence against women: an EU-wide survey. Main results report

on 5 March 2014


A new report of the Agency for Fundamental Rights of the European Union (FRA) presents results from the world’s biggest-ever survey on violence against women, revealing the extent of abuse suffered by women at home, at work, in public and online. The report is based on interviews with 42.000 women, 1500 women in each country including Romania.

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admin-alegViolence against women: an EU-wide survey. Main results report

Sanatatea reproducerii si egalitatea de gen

on 28 January 2014

When it comes to abortion and contraception, we are bombarded with diverging opinions and value judgments. Gender stereotypes – regarding the role of men and women – can be found in many of these opinions, most often preventing the bridging of the gap between the various groups debating the subject and finding beneficial solutions, which could later on become strategies in public policies.
A.L.E.G. believes that since pregnancy involves a man and a woman, solutions proposed in the field of reproductive health and rights (SRHR) have to be based on the principles of gender equality, whether we are talking about decreasing the number of teen pregnancies, of abortions, maternal deaths, or about public information and education campaigns, if we are to have real positive effects. This is why the United Nations Development Programme links human development to gender equality, and takes the maternal death rate and the number of teen pregnancies into account when calculating the gender inequality index. We can find serious problems regarding reproductive health in those countries where the gender inequality is high. (See http://hdr.undp.org/en/data)
We are assessing below a series of prejudices and myths regarding reproductive health and rights, and propose solutions from a gender perspective.
Myth: the woman is to blame for an unwanted pregnancy
Gender critique: Responsibility for a pregnancy is shared between man and woman, and therefore the woman cannot be the only one to blame for an unwanted pregnancy. The man continues to be in most cultures the one initiating the intercourse. So, why do we tend to focus on the woman and exclude the man when it comes to responsibility for a pregnancy and preventing an unwanted pregnancy?
Why do we only condemn “evil mothers” who abandon their children in the hospital, before even asking where the father is and what he did to prevent the situation? Why would a child’s birth certificate have a father’s name entry if the woman is the only one responsible for a pregnancy? Isn’t that a double standard? Does the father get to reap rewards only when everything works according to plan? We claim to live in a modern state, we have a law regarding equal opportunities between women and men and it’s about time we took it into account. When analyzing the high number of unwanted pregnancies and abortions, blaming the woman/mother and exempting the man from responsibility for a pregnancy is part of the problem, not the solution.
Solution: make both partners responsible in all media and educational contents related to pregnancy
Myth: a nation’s prosperity depends on birth rates
Gender critique: In 2013, the Romanian president criticized women, stating that the country’s birth rates dropped severely because of women’s emancipation and that Romania was facing economic problems because of irresponsible women. First and foremost, it has to be said that birth rates did not drop dramatically in the last decades – according to statistics, the birth rate remained constant since 1990, even if overall, the number of births is lower than during the communist era. Anyway, a numerous population does not ensure economic prosperity. There are many poor states in the world which have high birth rates, but also face infant mortality, maternal deaths, and high migration rates, as people choose to work abroad because of lack of decent living conditions inside the country. Prosperity is not only measured from the point of view of quantity, but also of quality.  As the study occasioned by the reviewing process ICPD+20 (ICPD – International Conference for Population Development) showed, investment in health and education are at least as important in order to ensure a prosperous society. Quick solutions trying to force an increase in birth rates failed: both Decree 77 banning abortion in the communist period and the attempts to increase childcare allowance after the Revolution proved to produce harmful impacts (maternal deaths, children born with disability, an increase in the number of people who have no or low income, an increase in the number of abandoned children).
How will I raise the child? What are the risks of birth? Who will help me raise the child? What kind of life will my child have? These are some of the main questions we, “modern” women tend to ask ourselves. And we will not be encouraged to become mothers unless we have decent incomes, access to decent medical conditions for birth, solutions for childcare and unless we trust the future perspectives of the state in which we give birth to a child. Any person, man or woman, needs to feel that his/her life is somewhat predictable from the professional, financial and political points of view in order to make the decision of becoming a parent. In order to become a parent, you have to at least be able to envision a future for your child. Another factor supporting the decision of becoming a mother has to do with the fair/equal division of responsibilities regarding family life.
So we would argue that poverty, corruption, poor health services and overall distrust in public policies are responsible for low birth rates in Romania, rather than women’s emancipation
Solution: Multi-sectorial programs approaching both the labor market and incomes, access to decent medical care and education and family life free from abuse and violence are needed in order to encourage women to have children.
Myth: organizations advocating for reproductive rights promote abortion
Gender critique: for those who lived during the time of the “children of the decree”[1] (or those who have seen Florin Iepan’s film), it is very clear that abortion, especially when done in precarious conditions, represents a major risk to women’s health. Ceaușescu’s Decree 77 did not put an end to abortion: it only moved abortions to the black market, which led to the death of over 10000 women and the birth of thousands of impaired children because of failed attempts to end pregnancies. The organizations advocating for reproductive rights and health want to avoid that history repeats itself. However, we do not promote and praise abortion; we promote the right to information and access of men and women to modern and safe means to prevent unwanted pregnancies. However, since society is not yet so advanced as to be able to prevent any unwanted pregnancy, we are aware that abortion will continue to practiced, whether we agree or not. Therefore, abortion has to be a legal medical procedure which can be performed safely. Sex education is the main method through which we can decrease the number of abortions, as the two partners will know how to prevent an unwanted pregnancy. Similarly, through sex education we can also efficiently reduce teen pregnancies jeopardizing girls’ future physical and professional development. The problem is that in Romania there are no programs subsidizing contraceptive means, nor sex education.
Solution: Sex education should be compulsory in schools starting in secondary school and all the way through high school. Sex education classes should be held by trained staff and rely on recent scientific information in order to cultivate healthy and responsible behaviors which lead to saving subsequent higher costs in society. The purpose of sex education classes is that girls and boys graduate school understanding how their own bodies work, how to protect themselves from sexually transmitted disease (including HIV/AIDS)  or unwanted pregnancies, what consensual sex means and how to avoid abuse (including sex trafficking risk circumstances) or how to build a non-violent, balances relationship. A society of young men and women who know their bodies, as well as their personal value beyond the body will save us a lot of future trouble.
 
Myth: only uneducated and selfish women turn to abortion
Gender critique: In the absence of contraceptive means, women of all ages and from all social classes turned to abortion, from celebrities to simple women. Florin Iepan’s film “Decrețeii”  offers first-person testimonials on this reality, from the communist regime.
Nowadays, many women still turn to abortion because they don’t know or can’t afford low risk contraceptive means, or because, despite using them, they got pregnant and cannot take on having a baby at the moment. This either because they are not in a steady relationship, don’t want children, don’t have the necessary resources (financial and/or moral) to raise them or because they already have the desired number of children. There are countless reasons and we don’t claim to be able to cover them here. Important is that we do not blame them because we don’t know whether ruining the life of a born child (through abandonment, neglect, abuse, being raised without of love etc.) can be considered less serious than an abortion. We believe that the world will be a better place when men and women will be encouraged to become parents when they are prepared, rather as an obligation. As the countless cases of child abuse and family violence prove, there are too many children who suffer because of their parents, and we all pay the price.
Solution: sex education in order to prevent an unwanted pregnancy, as well as removing social stigma around the right to choose whether to become a parent or not
 
Myth: sex education encourage young people to become sexually active at an early age
Gender critique: Wherever you try to talk about the necessity of sex education, somebody will step in worried that it will determine children/young people to become sexually active very early on. Such an attitude only proves lack of real communication with young people and the lack of knowledge regarding human sexuality. The age that young people become sexually active is rather related to the parental model, their group of friends, their partner and overall messages about sexuality in society. Specialist studies ascertain that, with every generation, the age when young people begin their sex lives drops, but that it is linked to other biologic changes which also happen sooner (the beginning of adolescence). The age when young people become sexually active with a partner should not be the main cause for concern. What is important is that the relationship be based on love and real feelings between young people of similar age, a consensual relationship, free of violence, exploitation, deceit or risk of disease. Sexuality is a normal fact of life; it is important for us to understand it as such and know how to prevent any risk situation. Young people start building an idea about sexuality and love very early on, based on what they see, hear and feel occurring between their own parents. Another information channel on sexuality is mass-media, and most of the times messages promoted on TV or in music create confusion and anxiety, especially among preadolescents.
Solution: sex education taught by trained personnel and focused on building responsible attitudes and behaviors will lead to young people being able to avoid unwanted pregnancies, sexually transmitted disease, sexual abuse etc. when they become sexually active.

 


[1] N. TR. The phrase refers to Romanians born in the 1960s and 1970s, shortly after the communist regime of Nicolae Ceaușescu issued Decree 770, aimed at the creation of a new and large Romanian population by restricting abortion and contraception.
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admin-alegSanatatea reproducerii si egalitatea de gen